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Water Chemistry References

Water Chemistry References


Using groundwater chemistry to find mineral resources is not a new concept.  Literature references show that groundwater chemistry has been used to search for various mineral deposit types since the 1930’s.  Early success with groundwater chemistry exploration was variable, largely due to poor sampling methods, limited understanding of groundwater chemistry, and relatively primitive analytical techniques.

The growth of the environmental industry over the last 10 years has resulted in significant advances in analytical and sampling technology.  The improved technology has led to an improved understanding of element mobility in groundwater, including the groundwater chemistry of mineralization.  With analytical detection limits down to parts per trillion and accurate characterizations of the groundwater chemistry surrounding mineralization, geoscientists now have the necessary tools to effectively use groundwater as a mineral exploration-sampling medium.

Below is a selected bibliography of technical groundwater chemistry (hydrogeochemistry) literature:

Adams, J.A.S., 1954. Uranium content of Wisconsin rivers and their use in geochemical prospecting. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 65, p. 1225.

Aitken, J.D., 1987. Hydrogeochemical survey for copper mineralization, Northwest Territories, Canada. In Practical Problems in Geochemistry, A.A. Levinson, P.M.D. Bradshaw, and I. Thompson, eds. Applied Publishing Ltd. Wilmette, Illinois, p. 35-37.

Al, T. A., Leybourne, M. I., Maprani, A. C., MacQuarrie, K. T., Dalziel, J. A., Fox, D. and Yeats, P. A., (2006). Transport and fate of mercury and other metals in a stream impacted by acid-sulfate weathering and cyanide-rich gold tailings. Applied Geochemistry, 21, 1969-1985.

Allan, R.J., and W. Salomons, 1995. Heavy Metal Aspects of Mining Pollution and its Remediation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 52, 284 p.

Allison, J.D., D.S. Brown, and K.J. Novo-Gradac, 1991.  Minteq/Prodefa2, a geochemical assessment model for environmental systems: version 3.0 user’s manual.  Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.

Anderson, P.R., and M.M. Benjamin, 1990.  Constant-capacitance surface complexation model, adsorption in silica-iron binary oxide suspensions.  in Chemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems II, Melchior and Bassett eds.  ACS Symposium Series 416, p. 272-281.

Anderson, M.P., 1979.  Using models to simulate the movement of contaminants through groundwater flow systems.  Critical Reviews in Environmental Controls 9, no. 2, p. 97-156.

Andrew, R.W., K.E. Biesinger, and G.E. Glass, 1977.  Effect of inorganic complexing on the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna.  Water Res. V. 11, p. 309-315.

Aravena, R., Suzuki, O., Pena, H., Pollastri, A., Fuenzalida, H., & Grilli, A. 1999. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in northern Chile. Applied Geochemistry, 14, 411-422.

Averitt, 1984.  Guide to data reports on hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance.  Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado.  Report GJBX-5(84), 224 p.

Bassett. R.L., and D.C. Melchior, 1990.  Chemical modeling of aqueous systems, an overview.  In Chemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems II, Melchior and Bassett eds..  ACS Symposium Series 416, p. 1-15.

Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, 1977.  Symposium on Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for Uranium in the United States, March 16-17, 1977.  Report GJBX-77(77), 468 p.

Benedetti, M., and J. Boulegue, 1991. Mechanism of gold transfer and depositionin a supergene environment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, V. 55, p. 1539-1547.

Benjamin, M.M., and J.O. Leckie, 1981.  Competitive  adsorption of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb on amorphous iron hydroxide.  Jour. Colloid Interface Sci., V. 83, No. 2, p. 410-419.

Benjamin, M.M., and J.O. Leckie, 1980.  Multiple site adsorption of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb on amorphous iron hydroxide.  Jour. Colloid Interface Sci., V. 79, No. 1, p. 209-221.

Bertenshaw, M.P, 1981. Hydrogeochemical indication of mineral deposits in the limestones of Derbyshire. Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. Sect. B, V. 90, November issue.

Beus, A.A., and Grigorian, S.V., 1975. Hydrogeochemical halos from mineral deposits. In Geochemical Exploration Methods for Mineral Deposits. Applied Publishing Ltd. Wilmette, Illinois, p. 205-208.

Blowes, D.W., and J.L. Jambor, 1990.  The pore water geochemistry and mineralogy of the vadose zone of sulphide tailings, Waite Amulet, Quebec, Canada.  Applied Geochemistry, V. 5, p. 327-346.

Boberg, W.W., and D.D. Runnells, 1971. Reconnaissance study of uranium in the South Platte River, Colorado. Econ. Geol., V. 66, p. 435-450.

Bogle, E.W., and I. Nichol, 1981. Metal transport, partition, and fixation in lake waters and sediments in carbonate terrain in southeastern Ontario. Jour. Geochem. Expl. V. 15, No. 1-3, p. 405-422.

Borovitskiy, V.P., A.D. Miller, and V.N. Shemyakin, 1966. Determination of minute amounts of gold in natural waters of the Aldan region. Translated from Geokhimiya, No. 4, p. 483-488.

Bosch, B, M., Leleu, P. Oustriere, C. Sarcia, J.F. Sureau, W. Blommaert, R. Gijbels, A. Sadurski, R. Vandelannoote, R. Van Grieken, and L. Van’t Dack, 1986. Hydrogeochemistry in the zinc-lead mining district of “Les Malines” (Gard, France). Chemical Geology, V. 55, p. 31-44.

Bottomley, D.J., Gregoire, D.C., & Raven, K.G. 1994. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 1483-1498.

Boulegue, J. 1981. Simultaneous determination of sulphide, polysulphides, and thiosulphate as an aid to ore exploration.  Jour. Geochem. Expl., V. 15, No. 1-3, p. 21-36.

Boyle, D.R. 2003. Preglacial weathering of massive sulfide deposits in the Bathurst Mining Camp: Economic geology, geochemistry, and exploration applications. In Goodfellow, W.D., McCutcheon, S.R., and Peter, J.M. (ed) Massive Sulphide Deposits of the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, and Northern Maine, Vol. 11, Economic Geology Monograph, pp. 689-721.

Boyle, D.R. 1988. Application of groundwater geochemistry in mineral exploration--L'utilisation de la geochimie des eaux souterraines dans le domaine de l'exploration minerale. In Berry, M.J. (ed) Current activities forum 1988, program with abstracts--Forum des travaux en cours 1988, programme et resumes. Geological Survey of Canada.

Boyle, R.W., 1974. Elemental associations in mineral deposits and indicator elements of interest in geochemical prospecting (revised), Geological Survey Paper 74-45 (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa).

Boyle, R.W., E.H.W Hornbrook, R.J. Allan, W. Dyck, and A.V. Smith, 1971. Hydrogeochemical methods—application in the Canadian Shield. The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical (CIM) Bulletin, V. 64 (715), November 1971, p. 60-71.

Boyle, R.W., and R.G. Garrett, 1970. Geochemical prospecting—a review of its status and future. Earth Science Reviews, V. 6, p. 51-75.

Boyle, R.W., C.T. Illsley, and R.N. Green, 1955. Geochemical investigation of the heavy metal content of stream and spring waters in the Keno Hill—Galena Hill area, Yukon Territory. Geol. Survey of Canada Bulletin 32, 34 p.

Bradbury, K.R., and M.A. Muldoon, 1990.  Hydraulic conductivity determinations in unlithified glacial and fluvial materials.  In D.M. Nelson and A.I. Johnson (eds.)  Ground Water and Vadose Zone Monitoring.  ASTM STP 1053, p. 138-151.

Bradshaw, P.M.D., D.R. Clews, and J.L. Walker, 1972. Exploration Geochemistry. A series of seven articles reprinted from Mining in Canada and Canadian Mining Journal. Barringer Research Ltd. 304 Carlingview Dr., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada.

Brodski, A.A., 1956. The hydrogeochemical method of prospecting for copper. Gosgeoltekhizdat. cited in Principles of Geochemical Prospecting—Techniques of Prospecting for Non-ferrous Ores and Rare Metals. I.I. Ginzberg, 1960. Pergamon Press.

Brooks, R.B., A.K. Chatterjee, and D.E. Ryan, 1981. Determination of gold in natural waters at the parts per trillion level. Chemical Geology, V. 33, p. 163-169.

Brown, E., M.W. Skougstad, and M.J. Fishman, 1970. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases. Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 5, Chapter A1, 160 p.

Cadigan, R.A., and J.K. Felmlee, 1976. Radioactive springs geochemical data related to uranium exploration. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 8, p. 381-395.

Cadigan, R.A., and J.K. Felmlee, 1977. Uranium source potential estimated from radium and radon concentrations in waters in an area of radioactive hot springs. In Geochemical Exploration 1978, Proceedings of the Seventh Int’l.Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Golden, Colorado. J.R. Watterson and P.K. Theobald, eds. Association of Exploration Geochemists, p. 401-406.

Cameron, E. M., Leybourne, M. I., Palacios, C., and Reich, M. (in press). Geochemical exploration and metallogenic studies, northern Chile. Geoscience Canada.

Cameron, E. M., Leybourne, M. I. and Placios, C. (2007). Atacamite in the oxide zone of copper deposits in northern Chile: involvement of deep formation waters? Mineralium Deposita, 42, 205-218. DOI 10.1007/s00126-006-0108-0.

Cameron, E. M., and Leybourne, M. I. (2005). Relationship between groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical anomalies at the Spence Copper Porphyry deposit. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 5, 135-145.

Cameron, E. M., Leybourne, M. I., and Kelley, D. L. (2005), Exploring for deposits under deep cover using geochemistry. SEG Newsletter, 63, 5-15.

Cameron, E. M., Hamilton, S. M., Leybourne, M. I., Hall, G. E. M., and McClenaghan, M. B. 2004. Finding deeply buried deposits using geochemistry. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 4, 7-32.

Cameron, E.M. & Hattori, K.H. 2003. Mobility of palladium in the surface environment: data from a regional lake sediment survey in northwestern Ontario. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 3, 299-311.

Cameron, E. M., Leybourne, M. I. and Kelley, D. L. 2002. Exploring for deeply covered mineral deposits: formation of geochemical anomalies in northern Chile by earthquake-induced surface flooding of mineralized groundwaters. Geology, 30, 1007-1010.

Cameron, E.M., Marmont, C., & Hall, G.E.M. 1997. Water: A medium for exploration in northern terrains. Explore, 96, 1-6.

Cameron, E.M., 1978. Hydrogeochemical methods for base metal exploration in the northern Canadian shield. J. Geochem. Explor. V.10, p. 219-243.

Cameron, E.M., 1977. Geochemical dispersion in lake waters and sediments from massive sulphide mineralization, Agricola Lake, Northwest Territories. J. Geochem. Explor. V.7, p. 327-348.

Carlisle, D., W.L. Berry, I.R. Kaplan, and J.R. Watterson, 1985.  Mineral Exploration, Biological Systems, and Organic Matter.  Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Carey, M.L., McPhail, D.C., & Taufen, P.M. 2003. Groundwater flow in playa lake environments: impact on gold and pathfinder element distributions in groundwaters surrounding mesothermal gold deposits, St. Ives area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 3, 57-71.

Chao, T.T., E.A. Jenne, and L.M. Heppting, 1968. Prevention of adsorption of trace amounts of gold by containers. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 600-D, p. D-16 to D-19.

Chivas, A.R., A.S. Andrew, W.B. Lyons, M.I. Bird, and T.H. Donnelly, 1991.  Isotopic constraints on the origin of salts in Australian playas.  1. Sulphur.  Palaeogeography. Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.  Elsevier Science Publishers.  V. 84, p. 309-332.

Cidu, R., Fanfani, L., Shand, P., Edmunds, W.M., Dack, L.V.t., & Gijbels, R. 1995. Hydrogeochemical exploration for gold in the Osilo area, Sardinia, Italy. Applied Geochemistry, 10, 517-529.

Clark, I.D. & Fritz, P. 1997. Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology. Lewis Publishers.

Clark, W.B., and G. Kugler, 1973. Dissolved helium in groundwater: a possible method for uranium and thorium prospecting. Econ. Geol., V. 68, p. 243-251.

Collins, B.J., 1973.  The concentration control of soluble copper in a mine tailings stream.  Geoquimica et Cosmochimica Acta, V. 37, p. 69-75.

Cowart, J.B., and J.K. Osmond, 1977. Uranium isotopes in groundwater, their use in prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 8, p. 365-379.

Craig, H. 1961. Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science, 133, 1702-1703.

Dall’Aglio, M., 1971. Comparison between hydrogeochemical and stream sediment methods in prospecting for mercury. In Geochemical Exploration, Proceedings of the 3rd International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Toronto. The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Special Volume 11, p. 126-131.

Dall’Aglio, M., and F. Tonani, 1972. Hydrogeochemical exploration for sulphide deposits: correlation between sulphate and other constituents. In Geochemical Exploration, 1972, Proceedings of the Fourth International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, London, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, April 17-20.

Davis, J.A., 1982.  Adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter at the oxide/water interface.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, V. 46, p. 2381-2393.

Davis, J.A., and D.B. Kent, 1990. Surface complexation modeling in aqueous geochemistry. In Mineral-Water Interface Chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, V. 23. M.F. Hochella and A.F. White eds.. Mineralogical Society of America, p. 177-248.

Davis, J.A., and J.O. Leckie, 1979.  Speciation of adsorbed ions at the oxide/water interface, in Chemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems, E.A. Jenne editor.  ACS Symposium Series 93, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington D.C., p. 199-317.

Davis, J.A., and J.O. Leckie, 1978b.   Effect of adsorbed complexing ligands on trace metal uptake by hydrous oxides.  Environ. Sci. and Tech.  V. 12, p. 1309-1315.

de Caritat, P. & Kirste, D. 2005. Groundwater chemical and isotopic composition: a mineral exploration tool for areas of regolith cover - lessons from the Curnamona Province. CRC LEME-GSWA Mineral Exploration Seminar, 81-82.

de Caritat, P., Kirste, D., Carr, G., & McCulloch, M. 2005. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia: recognising interaction with bedrock and mineralisation using S, Sr and Pb isotopes. Applied Geochemistry, 20, 767-787.

De Geoffroy, J., S.M. Wu, and R.W. Heins, 1967. Geochemical coverage by spring sampling method in the southwest Wisconsin zinc area. Econ. Geol., V. 62, p. 679-697.

de Jong, J., Schoemann, V., Tison, J.L., Becquevort, S., Masson, F., Lannuzel, D., Petit, J., Chou, L., Weis, D., & Mattielli, N. 2007. Precise measurement of Fe isotopes in marine samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Analytica Chimica Acta, 589, 105-119.

Dean, J.R., C.J. Bland, and A. Levinson, 1982. Radium226/radium223 ratio in groundwater as a uranium exploration tool. 9th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Saskatoon, Canada. May 12-14, 1982.

Deering, M.F., E.T. Mohr, B.F. Sypniewski, and E.H. Carlson, 1982. The application of hydrogeochemistry to the exploration of Mississippi-Valley-type deposits in northwestern Ohio. 9th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Saskatoon, Canada. May 12-14, 1982.

Denson, N.M., H.D. Zeller, and J.D. Stephens, 1956. Water sampling as a guide in the search for uranium deposits and its use in evaluating widespread volcanic units as potential source beds for uranium. U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 300, p. 673-680.

Deutscher, R.L., A.W. Mann, and A. Giblin, 1980. Groundwater geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits. In Uranium in the Pine Creek Geosyncline, J. Ferguson and A.B. Goleby, eds. STI/PUB 555 International Atomic Energy Agency. reviewed In Practical problems in Geochemistry, A.A. Levinson, P.M.D. Bradshaw, and I. Thompson, eds. Applied Publishing Ltd. Wilmette, Illinois, p. 74-77.

Dickson, B. & Giblin, A. 2006. New horizons for groundwater geochemistry in uranium exploration. AESC2006.

Dickson, B.L., R.L. Meakins, and C.J. Bland, 1982. Evaluating radioactive anomalies using radium-223. 9th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Saskatoon, Canada, May 12-14, 1982.

Dobra, J.L., 1997.  The U.S. gold industry 1996, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication 21, 32 p.

Dobra, J.L., 1999.  The U.S. gold industry 1998, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication 25, 32 p.

Dyck, W., Y.T. Maurice, and J.G. Strand, 1980. Interpretation of geochemical patterns in lake sediments and waters in the vicinity of the Key Lake U-Ni deposits, Northern Saskatchewan. 8th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Hannover. Abstracts volume.

Dyck, W. 1979. Application of hydrogeochemistry to the search for uranium. In Hood, P.J. (ed) Geophysics and Geochemistry in the Search for Metallic Ores. Proceedings of Exploration 77, an International Symposium, Ottawa, Canada, October 1977, Vol. Economic Geology Report 31, pp. 489-510.

Dyck, W. 1976. The use of helium in mineral exploration. Jour. Geochem. Expl V. 5, p. 3-20.

Dyck, W., A.K. Chatterjee, D.E. Gemmell, and K. Murricane, 1976. Well water trace element reconnaissance, eastern Maritime Canada. J. Geochem. Explor. V. 6, p. 139-162.

Dyck, W., 1975. Geochemistry applied to uranium exploration. Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 75-26, p. 33-47.

Dyck, W., and E.M. Cameron, 1975. Surface lake water uranium-radon survey of the Lineament Lake area, District of MacKenzie. Geol. Survey Can. Paper 75-1, p. 209-212.

Dyck, W., 1974. Geochemical studies in the surficial environment of the Beaverlodge area, Saskatchewan. Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 74-32, 30 p.

Dyck, W., A.S. Dass, C.C. Durham, J.D. Hobbs, J.C. Pelchat, and J.H. Galbraith, 1971. Comparison of regional geochemical uranium exploration methods in the Beaverlodge area, Saskatchewan: In Geochemical Exploration, R.W. Boyle, ed. Can. Inst. Min. Met. Spec. Vol. 11, p. 132-150.

Dzombak, D.A. and F.M.M.M. Morel, 1990.  Surface Complexation Modeling.  J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 393 p.

Earle, S.A.M. & Drever, G.L. 1983. Hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium within the Athabasca Basin, northern Saskatchewan. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 19, 57-73.

Erickson, R.L., and A.P. Marranzino, 1961. Hydrogeochemical anomalies, Fourmile Canyon, Eureka County, Nevada. U.S.G.S. Professional Paper B-292, Article 124.

Fauth, H., 1980. Exploration for fluorite in Eastern Bavaria. 8th International geochemical Exploration Symposium, Hannover, Germany. Abstracts Volume.

Fedoseyeva, V.I., and O.A. Strel’tsova, 1986.  The adsorption interaction of aluminum oxide with the Au(I) thiosulfate complex.  Translated from Geokhimiya, No. 10, p. 1506-1508.

Fritz, P., Clark, I.D., Fontes, J.-C., Whiticar, M.J., & Faber, E. 1992. Deuterium and 13C evidence for low temperature production of hydrogen and methane in a highly alkaline groundwater environment on Oman. In Kharaka, Y. and Maest, A.S. (ed) Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, pp. 793-796. Balkema.

Ficklin, W.H., D.J. Preston, E.P. Welsch, and G.A. Nowlan, 1981. Analytical results for seventy eight ground-water samples from the Casa Grande vicinity, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 81-960.

Fiero, B., 1986.  Geology of the Great Basin, Reno: University of Nevada Press, 198 p.

Fishman, M.J. and L.C. Friedman, 1989.  Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments.  Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, Book 5, Chapter A1.

Fix, P.F., 1956. Hydrogeochemical exploration for Uranium. U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 300, p. 667-672.

Fletcher, W.K., 1981.  Analytical Methods in Geochemical Prospecting.  Volume 1 of Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, New York, 255 p.

Friedrich, G.H., and W.L Pluger, 1971. Geochemical prospecting for barite and fluorite deposits. In Geochemical Exploration, Proceedings of the 3rd International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Toronto. The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Special Volume 11, p. 151-156.

Geraghty, J.J. et al., 1973.  Water atlas of the United States, Water Information Center, Port Washington, N.Y.

Giblin, A. 2001. Groundwaters: Geochemical Pathfinders to Concealed Ore Deposits. CSIRO Exploration and Mining.

Giblin, A. M., 1996a. Applications of groundwater geochemsitry to mineral exploration in the Narromine-Nyngan region of NSW, NSW Department of Mineral Resources Report GS 1996/201.

Giblin, A. M., 1996b. An application of groundwater geochemistry to the detection of prospective basement beneath Mesozoic cover, in Extended Abstracts No. 43 Mesozoic Geology of the Eastern Australian Plate Conference, pp. 186-194 (Geological Society of Australia, Inc.).

Giblin, A., 1997. Geochemsitry of groundwaters in the vicinity of Stawell, Clunes, Ararat and Ballarat gold deposits.  The AusIMM Annual Conference, Ballarat, 12 – 15, March 1997, p. 181-191.

Giblin, A., 1995. Groundwater geochemistry in Australia—an exploration window to concealed ore deposits. 17th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Townsville, Queensland. Extended Abstracts Vol., p. 319-322.

Giblin, A. 1994. Natural waters as sample media in drainage geochemistry. In Hale, M. and Plant, J.A. (ed) Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry, Vol. 6, pp. 269-303. Elsevier Science.

Giblin, A.M., and B.L. Dickson, 1984. Hydrogeochemical interpretation of apparent anomalies in base metals and radium in groundwater near Lake Maurice in the Great Victoria Desert. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 22, p. 361-362.

Giblin, A.M. & Snelling, A.A. 1983. Application of hydrogeochemistry to uranium exploration in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 19, 33-55.

Gilliss, M.L., Al, T.A., Blowes, D.W., Hall, G.E.M., & MacLean, B. 2004. Geochemical dispersion in groundwater from a weathered Cu-Zn deposit in glaciated terrain. Geochemistry-Exploration Environment Analysis, 4, 291-305.

Gladwell, D.R., and R.E. Lett, 1987. Geochemical exploration for tin using suspended sediment sample media. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 29, p. 409-410.

Gleeson, C.F., and R.W. Boyle, 1976. The hydrogeochemistry of the Keno Hill area, Yukon Territory. Canadian Geological Survey Paper 75-14, 10 p.

Goldberg, I.S. 1998. Vertical migration of elements from mineral deposits. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 61, 191-202.

Gooding, Ken, 2002/04/07.  Exposing a gold myth, Miningweb 1997-2002. 

Gray, D.J. 2001. Hydrogeochemistry in the Yilgarn Craton. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 1, 253-264.

Grimbert, A., 1963. Use of geochemical techniques in uranium prospecting: In Seminar on geochemical prospecting methods and techniques, Bangkok, United Nations, New York, p. 81-94.

Grimes, D.J., W.H. Ficklin, A.L. Meier, and J.B. McHugh, 1995. Anomalous gold, antimony, arsenic, and tungsten in groundwater and alluvium around disseminated gold deposits along the Getchell Trend, Humboldt County, Nevada. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 52, p. 351-371.

Goldak, G.E., 1974.  Helium-4 mass spectrometry for uranium exploration: Preprint 74-L-44, Soc. Min.Eng., A.I.M.E., 12 p.

Goleva, G.A., 1968. Hydrogeochemical prospecting for hidden ore deposits. Russian translation—Geological Survey of Canada Translation # 228, 512 p.

Gosling, A.W., E.A. Jenne, and T.T. Chao, 1971. Gold content of natural waters in Colorado. Econ. Geol., V. 66, p. 309-313.

Hall, G.E.M. 1998. Cost-effective protocols for the collection, filtration and preservation of surface waters for detection of metals and metalloids at ppb (μg l-1) and ppt (ng l-1) levels. Aquatic Effects Technology Evaluation Program (Task Force on Water Quality Issues), AETE Project 3.1.3, Canmet, Ottawa.

Hall, G.E.M., Bonham-Carter, G.F., Horowitz, A.J., Lum, K., Lemieux, C., Quemerais, B., & Garbarino, J.R. 1996. The effect of using different 0.45 µm filter membranes on ‘dissolved‘ element concentrations in natural waters. Applied Geochemistry, 11, 243-249.

Hall, G.E.M., 1995. Progress in hydrogeochemical surveys, from the great white north. 17th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Townsville, Queensland. Extended Abstracts Volume, p. 22.

Hall, G.E.M., Vaive, J.E., & Ballantyne, S.B. 1986. Field and laboratory procedures for determing gold in natural waters; relative merits of preconcentration with activated charcoal. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 26, 191-202.

Hamilton, T.W., J. Ellis, T.M. Florence, and J.J. Fardy, 1983. Analysis of gold in surface waters from Australian goldfields: an investigation into direct Hydrogeochemical prospecting for gold. Econ. Geol., V. 78, p. 1335-1341.

Harter, R.D., 1983.  Effect of soil pH on adsorption of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel.  Soil Sci. Am. Jour., V. 47, p. 47-51.

Hayes, M.H.B., and R.S. Swift, 1978.  The chemistry of soil organic colloids.  in The Chemistry of Soil Constituents, D.J. Greenland and M.H.B. Hayes eds., p. 179-320.  J. Wiley and Sons, New York.

Hem, J.D., C.J. Lind, and C.E. Roberson, 1989.  Coprecipitation and redox reactions of manganese oxides with copper and nickel.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, V. 53, p. 2811-2822.

Hoag, R.B., and G.R. Webber, 1976a. Significance for mineral exploration of sulphate concentrations in groundwaters. CIM Bulletin, Dec., 1976, p. 86-91.

Hoag, R.B., and G.R. Webber, 1976b. Hydrogeochemical exploration and sources of anomalous waters. J. Geochem. Explor., V. 5, p. 39-57.

Holm, T.R., and C.D. Curtiss, 1990. Copper complexation by natural organic matter in groundwater. In Chemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems II, Melchior and Bassett eds.. ACS Symposium Series 416. p. 508-518.

Hornbrook, E.H.W., and R.J. Allan, 1970. Geochemical exploration feasibility study within the zone of continuous permafrost, Coppermine River region, Northwest Territories. Geological Survey of Canada Paper, p. 70-36.

Hvorslev, M.J., 1951.  Time lag and soil permeability in ground water observations.  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterway Experimentation Station, Bulletin 36, 50 p.

James, J.W., 1984, State Climatologist.  Climate of Nevada, Paper No. 84-12, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of Nevada, Reno. 

James, R.O., and G.A. Parks., 1982.  Characterization of aqueous colloids by their electrical double layer and intrinsic surface chemical properties.  Surface and Colloid Science, V. 12, E. Matijevic editor, p. 119-226.

Jenne, E.A., 1993.  Metal adsorption onto and desorption from sediments.  I. Rates presentation from 4th workshop on metal speciation and contamination of aquatic sediments.  H.E. Allen chairman, June 8-11, Jekyll Island, GA.

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